Manuscript Road Trip: Boston Manuscripts are Beyond Words

The Flight into Egypt, Walters Art Museum, MS W.188, f.112r

The Flight into Egypt, Walters Art Museum, MS W.188, f.112r

For the last five years, I have had the great pleasure of collaborating with four extraordinary and generous colleagues – Jeffrey Hamburger (Harvard Univ.), William P. Stoneman (Houghton Library, Harvard Univ.), Anne-Marie Eze (Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum), and Nancy Netzer (McMullen Museum, Boston College) – on a massive and unprecedented multi-venue and multi-media project that has at last come to fruition: Beyond Words: Illuminated Manuscripts in Boston Collections.

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Beyond Words showcases 250 manuscripts and incunables from nineteen Boston-area lenders in three venues. At Harvard’s Houghton Library, Beyond Words: Church and Cloister explores books made by and for monks in the 7th through 13th centuries; at the McMullen Museum of Art at Boston College, Beyond Words: Pleasure and Piety showcases books for nobles from the Gothic period (including six, count’em, SIX leaves of the Beauvais Missal!), and at the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, Beyond Words: Italian Renaissance Books presents masterpieces of Renaissance book illumination, including incunabula.

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Six Beauvais Missal leaves in one place! That’s more than have ever been seen together since it was cut up in 1942. (photo by Jay Moschella)

But Beyond Words is much more than a showcase of Boston’s hidden treasures. As you make your way through the three venues, you will follow the development of The Book, of literacy and literate culture, and, of course, medieval and Renaissance art over the course of a thousand years. In addition, you will meet many of characters who interacted with these books or actually brought them to Boston, such as Isabella Stewart Gardner herself.

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Leaf from the glorious Noyon Missal, on display at the Houghton Library, Harvard University (Noyon, France, 1225–50) (Harvard University, Houghton Library, MS Typ 120, f. 4r)

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Isabella Stewart Gardner reading, photograph by Otto Rosenheim, London, 14 December 1906. Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum Archive.

The three venues are enhanced by an audioguide and digital interactives – videos, digital facsimiles, and annotated images – that supplement the labels and walltext. A catalogue with hundreds of color images and detailed entries on each book (beautifully designed and published by the McMullen Museum and available here) includes hundreds of full-color images, contributions by more than 80 scholars, and many previously-unpublished discoveries. A three-day symposium is planned for November 3-5. Finally, the project website includes detailed information about visiting each venue, a calendar of public programming, a link to the audioguide, and a searchable database of objects in the show, many of which include links to online images. The website will be updated regularly, so check back often to see what’s new! Follow us on Twitter @BeyondWords2016 for regular updates.

If you’re going to be in Boston between now and the end of the year, please take advantage of this opportunity to meet some of Boston’s greatest treasures. While each venue can stand on its own, I encourage you to visit the sites in chronological order if possible – Houghton, McMullen, Gardner – so you can experience the scope and narrative of the show the way we intended.

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A Renaissance scholar’s studiolo at the Gardner Museum

We hope to see you in Boston!

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Manuscript Road Trip: Manuscrits de Québec

The Flight into Egypt, Walters Art Museum, MS W.188, f.112r

The Flight into Egypt, Walters Art Museum, MS W.188, f.112r

There are several hundred medieval and Renaissance manuscripts to be found in the Canadian province of Quebec, although very few have a digital presence. The small list published in the de Ricci Census was only slightly increased by the Supplement. Both were fleshed out more fully by Bruno Roy in 1999 (“Spicilegium Montis Regii, Description de quelques manuscrits conservés à Montréal,” Memini. Travaux et documents, 3, 1999, p. 171-194) and by a special issue of Memini published in 2011 and available online here. The latter is a very useful work – with brief notices, studies of individual manuscripts, and extensive bibliography – that adds significantly to the information compiled by myself and Melissa Conway in our Directory of Collections in the United States and Canada with Pre-1600 Manuscript Holdings (pp. 419-420); unfortunately, we didn’t know about Memini until our work had already been published. The next online update to our Directory will include all of these collections as well as the relocation information (such as the disposition of the manuscript leaves recorded by de Ricci as belonging to F. Cleveland Morgan) traced by Brenda Dunn-Lardeau and Janick Auberger in their introduction to the Memini volume. In sum, several hundred pre-1600 European manuscripts can be found today in at least ten collections in Quebec, most of which are in Montreal:

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Québec City: Lots to see, but no manuscripts

 

Bibliothèque et Archives nationale du Québec (Montreal)

Bibliothèque centrale de la Ville de Montréal (Montreal)

Concordia University (Montreal)

Bibliothèque de la Compagnie de Jésus, Collège Jean-de-Brébeuf (Montreal)

McGill University (Montreal)

Montreal Museum of Fine Arts (Montreal)

Musée McCord (Montreal)

Université de Montréal (Montreal)

Université du Québec à Montréal, Bibliothèque des Arts (Montreal)

Musée de la civilisation, Musée de l’Amérique Francophone (Québec)

Because this blog is primarily focused on digital access to medieval and Renaissance manuscripts, we’ll spend today in Montreal, where there are several collections with online handlists, images, or records.

Canada Map

Screen Shot 2016-07-11 at 12.45.14 PM.pngThe University of Montreal provides a detailed online handlist of medieval material, but without images (except for this image, which is on the cover of the PDF). Most of the objects listed are binding fragments, including this late-eleventh-century Italian legendary, of which the collection holds eight leaves. Of particular interest is that the handlist records details about the particular early printed books from which the fragments were removed. While European fragment collections sometimes retain this information, since the fragments were often removed from the early printed books by the owning institution, most North American collections acquired their fragments long after they had been pulled out of bindings and have little to no knowledge of the source bindings. For more on the collection, see Joyce Boro, “Notes on Libraries and Collections: Rare Books and Special Collections,University of Montreal/Livres rares et collections spéciales de Université de Montréal,” Journal of the Early Book Society for the Study of manuscripts and printing history (Vol. 10, 2007), pp. 287 ff.
On the other side of Mont-Royal, the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts owns one codex and around forty leaves, but the online search engine is difficult to use when searching for manuscripts. After some experimentation, a search for “vélin” had the most success, bringing up records for three leaves and a Book of Hours (along with a few later objects on vellum). For more information on these and other early manuscripts, see E. Leesti, Les manuscrits liturgiques du Moyen âge. Liturgical Manuscripts of the Middle Ages (Montréal, Musée des Beaux-Arts de Montréal, 1987).
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Montreal MFA acq. 1955.3770 (St. Sebaldus, by Simon Bening)

MMFA acq. 1955.3770 (at left) is a miniature of St. Sebaldus enthroned holding the Nuremberg cathedral on his lap, with a lively bas-de page jousting scene. The miniature – from an as-yet-unidentified Book of Hours – has been convincingly attributed by Elizabeth Leesti, Sandra Hindman, and others to Simon Bening.

 

 

 

 

 

 

The lovely late-thirteenth-century French miniature of the Adoration of the Magi (acq. 1962.1355) shown below may have been part of a full cycle of miniatures at the beginning of a Psalter. It was given to the Museum by F. Cleveland Morgan, although it isn’t included in his Census listing (II:2233).

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The Annunciation miniature below (acq. 1962.1357) comes from a ca. 1430 Book of Hours. It was also given to the Museum by F. Cleveland Morgan but, like the Adoration miniature, was not recorded in the Morgan Census.1962_1357_IN2

 

The final online record is for a late-fifteenth-century Book of Hours (acq. 1943.1372). The manuscript was donated to the Museum by Vera Pratt (called “Mrs. George D. Pratt” in the record), whose New York collection is recorded in the Census (II:1809-10). This codex may be her No. 2, although the Museum record doesn’t include enough codicological descriptors to allow for a firm identification (it is worth noting that the Pratt manuscript is identified in the Schoenberg Database as having been offered – but not sold –  at Sotheby’s London, 22 June 1982, lot 79, but the identification of the lot as Pratt no. 2 may be incorrect…if anyone has the catalogue and could take a look at the lot for me, I would be very grateful!).

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This ca. 1470 Book of Hours belonging to Concordia University in Montreal is described in detail in the Memini volume, which includes several images in addition to that at right, an image of Death attacking a woman in a cemetery illustrating the Office of the Dead.

Several manuscripts from the Université du Québec à Montréal’s Bibliothèque des Arts are discussed in the Memini volume as well, with multiple images. See also the exhibition catalogue, Le Livre médiéval et humaniste dans les collections de lUQAM. Actes de la Journée détudes sur les livres anciens suivis du Catalogue de lexposition « Lhumanisme et les imprimeurs français au XVIes. », dir. B. Dunn-Lardeau et J. Biron (Université du Québec à Montréal, Figura. Le Centre de recherche sur le texte et l’imaginaire, 2006). Here are the manuscripts discussed in Memini:

MS 1: 13th-c. Paris pocket Bible:

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UQAM MS 1, f. 1

 

MS 2:  a truly international late fourteenth-century Book of Hours…made in the Netherlands for an English owner with later Italian additions but currently a resident of Canada:

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UQAM MS 2, f. 22v

MS 3: Book of Hours of Pellegrin de Remicourt (ca. 1470-1475), in which he and his wife Madeleine later recorded the birthdates, names, and godparents of their children. Shown here, the births of their first three children in 1478, 1480, and 1482:

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UQAM MS 3, f. 1

Livres rares Général YPA 224: Cicero, De finibus bonorum et malorum (Italy, ca. 1460):

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UQAM YPA 224, f. 1

For next time, take a boat up the St. Lawrence and across Lake Ontario to meet me in Toronto…

St.-Lawrence-River

 

 

 

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Manuscript Road Trip: An Otto Ege Treasure Trove in Maine

The Flight into Egypt, Walters Art Museum, MS W.188, f.112r

The Flight into Egypt, Walters Art Museum, MS W.188, f.112r

About two months ago, I received an email with the subject line “Beauvais Missal.” My interest piqued, I opened the message to find Maine bookseller Seth Thayer writing to report that he had found a leaf of the Missal “in a trunk in a client’s house in Maine.”

Indeed he had.

This leaf-in-a-box turned out to be the 100th identified folio of the Beauvais Missal. But there was much more.

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For several days, Seth continued to send images of additional leaves he found in the trunk, eleven in all. The client believed them to have been purchased in New York in the 1950s and stored in the trunk since the 1970s. They hadn’t seen the light of day in forty years.

Several of the leaves looked very familiar to me, and after some research I was able to identify nearly all of them as having passed through the hands of our old friend Otto F. Ege or his close associate Philip Duschnes.

Colby vThe Beauvais Missal

This Beauvais Missal leaf preserves liturgy for the Office of St. Lawrence (10 August) and is consecutive with a leaf belonging to a collector in Bath, Ohio. The leaf is unusual in that it provides complete choral pieces instead of the incipits found elsewhere in the manuscript, because of St. Lawrence’s status as an Apostle. For example, in this image of the verso, the versicle and offertory are given in full on multiple staves of music.

The Wilton Processional

Another exciting find: two leaves from a thirteenth-century processional made for the nuns of Wilton Abbey. The manuscript is the subject of important work being done by  University of Northern Iowa musicologist Alison Altstatt. Leaves of this processional were used by Ege as no. 8 in his “Fifty Original Leaves” portfolio; some images of those leaves can be found here, but to really learn about this important manuscript, spend some time with this video and watch for Prof. Altstatt’s forthcoming article, “Re-membering the Wilton Processional” in Notes: The Quarterly Journal of the Music Library Association, 72:4 (June 2016), 590-632.

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Leaf of the Wilton Processional

 

The Processional leaf above was housed in a red-fillet matte of the style typically used by New York dealer Philip Duschnes and his associate Otto Ege. The Processional leaf below was found in a custom frame and includes the label of the seller, Livingston Galleries in New York. This suggests that the two leaves may have been purchased from different sources at different times, begging the question as to whether the owner realized they were from the same manuscript and purchased one because he already owned the other.

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Another Leaf of the Wilton Processional

 

1946 Mirror

Damn Yankees                                   (remember, I live in Boston)

When Thayer removed the framed leaf from its glass, he found that it, too, was housed in the same style matte. But there was another surprise in the frame: a New York newspaper from June 5, 1946. This is actually a really important piece of evidence, as it helps to establish the date when the leaf was framed (soon after June 5, 1946), which in turn helps establish when the Wilton Processional was broken (before then). This pushes back by at least two years the possible date of Ege and Duschnes’ acquisition of this manuscript as recorded by Gwara (Otto Ege’s Manuscripts, p. 346). It is likely they acquired and broke up the manuscript before June of 1946 [n.b. Peter Kidd’s comment below].

There are several layers of provenance to be read in this particular leaf. First, its origin: part of a processional made for the nuns of Wilton Abbey in the thirteenth century. Then, the red fillet matte, into which it was secured before June 1946, probably by Philip Duschnes (given the New York provenance, as opposed to Ege in Ohio). Then, the frame, into which it was placed by Livingston Galleries in June 1946. Then, the trunk, in which it was stored in the 1970s.

Most of the other leaves can be definitively identified as having passed through the hands of Philip Duschnes and Otto Ege; again, given the New York connection, it is likely that these particular leaves were sold by Duschnes rather than Ege. In the montage below, clockwise from the upper left and with reference to Scott Gwara’s Otto Ege’s Manuscripts, these leaves are found in his handlist as numbers 115, 73 (two leaves), 65, 82, 99, and 100.

Montage

 

choirbooksThe final leaf (shown to the right), from a large choirbook, cannot be positively identified in Gwara’s handlist, but it may be lurking in there somewhere.

Thayer was committed to finding an institutional home for the leaves, where they could be used for study and teaching. He was successful; the entire group has just been acquired by Colby College in Waterville, Maine.

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A Happy Ending: Students and faculty from Colby College examining the new leaves

 

 

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Manuscript Road Trip, Canadian Edition: Newfoundland

The Flight into Egypt, Walters Art Museum, MS W.188, f.112r

The Flight into Egypt, Walters Art Museum, MS W.188, f.112r

Heading northeast from Nova Scotia, we’ll make our way across the Gulf of St. Lawrence to the island of Newfoundland, whose Atlantic coast is the continent’s most easterly point, granted the daily gift of North America’s first sunrise.

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As far as I know, there is only one collection in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador housing pre-1600 European manuscripts: Memorial University in St. John’s.

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Memorial’s collection is uncommon in several respects. The manuscripts have been catalogued, both in the library OPAC and in two online handlists (here and here), and several have been completely and beautifully digitized (linked from the first handlist). In addition, unlike the collection we looked at last week in Nova Scotia whose manuscripts were acquired by bequest a century ago, Memorial is actively collecting, having acquired nearly all of its early manuscripts in the last decade. In its acquisition, cataloguing, and digitization programmes, Memorial University is impressively on par with larger, more well-known institutions.

Not only is the Library acquiring fine examples from various regions and centuries to form an excellent teaching collection, but several of the manuscripts have esteemed histories, making them fascinating case studies in provenance and North American collection development.

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Opening initial, Hours of the Virgin (Memorial University, Newfoundland, BX 2080 1455 vault, f. 16r)

Memorial’s beautiful mid-fifteenth-century Dutch Book of Hours (made in Haarlem for the use of Utrecht) is a great example of a manuscript with an impressive origin and storied history.  This codex is full of extraordinary penwork decoration, almost shockingly ornate. The penwork holds many hidden surprises; check out the face hidden in the lower left corner of f. 63v!

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The scribe of this professionally-produced manuscript has been localized by Margriet Hülsmann – who has identified several other manuscripts written in this hand – as active in Haarlem, ca. 1455 – 1465 (see “An identifiable Haarlem scribe active c.1455 to c.1465 in the environment of the Master of the Haarlem Bible”, Quaerendo 33, 2003, nos 1 & 2, pp. 119-134, this manuscript described on pp.120, 125-6). Hülsmann also affiliates the decorative stamps on the original leather binding with a Haarlem workshop of the same period.

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Provenance inscriptions (Memorial University, Newfoundland, BX 2080 1455 vault, first blank leaf)

By the early nineteenth century, the manuscript had crossed the English Channel, where it was bought in Exeter by Devonshire collector Charles Aldenburg Bentinck (1810-1891), who made note of the acquisition on the first flyleaf. In 1943, the manuscript was purchased by famed British collector (and Sussex sheriff and brewer) John Roland Abbey (1894-1969), who affixed his very impressive gilt and embossed bookplate inside the front cover. This was no. 2225 in his collection.

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Abbey Bookplate (Memorial University, Newfoundland, BX 2080 1455 vault, inner front cover)

The Abbey library was dispersed by Sotheby’s London in the 1970s. In Part 7 of the sale (1 Dec. 1970), this manuscript was lot 2880. From Sotheby’s, the manuscript went through several hands before making its way to St. John’s (see Schoenberg Database records 26721, 83131, and 185343; the latter is Christie’s London, 23 Nov. 2010, lot 15).

In addition to several other codices (see the handlists linked above), Memorial has recently acquired nearly two dozen single leaves, several of which are particularly noteworthy. None of these images are available online as of yet, and I thank Memorial librarians Jeannie Bail and Patrick Warner for their generosity in sharing these images with me and allowing me to share them with you.
Leaf from the Chundleigh Bible (side 1)

This bible leaf, preserving part of the fourth book of Kings, comes from a thirteenth-century manuscript from Arras known as the Chudleigh Bible, so named for Lord Clifford of Chudleigh, who owned the complete manuscript in the first half of the twentieth century. The volume was sold by Lord Clifford at Sotheby’s on 7 December 1953, lot 51, and appeared there again on 8 July 1970, lot 104.  It was broken soon afterwards and the leaves dispersed. Although the Memorial University leaf does not have any historiated initials (such as those in these leaves sold recently at Christie’s), it is clearly identifiable as part of the Chudleigh Bible because of its dimensions (54 lines, two columns, 285 x 190 (185 x 120) mm) and the distinctive decorative red-framed annotations. Stanford University owns a bifolium of the manuscript, and other leaves have been sold by Quaritch (cat.1147, 1991, no 15), Maggs (Cat.1167, 1993, no 2), and Sotheby’s, 6 December 2005, lot 16 and 8 July 2014, lots 13-14.

Another recent acquisition of note is this leaf, from a processional attributed to the nuns of the Royal Dominican Abbey of St-Louis at Poissy:

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At first glance, this looks an awful lot like the manuscripts produced in France in the late fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries (like this or this), with the vertical bars, colorful vines, spindly tendrils, and trefoil leaves typical of manuscripts produced around the year 1400. In fact, the pencil notation in the lower margin makes just such an early attribution, albeit slightly earlier than one might immediately think.
At second glance, however, something looks odd. The blunt, squared-off appendages to the vines are unusual…the script is a later style than would usually accompany this kind of decoration…and so on. In fact, in her unpublished dissertation, Joan Naughton argues that the sixteenth-century nuns of Poissy were in the habit (sorry) of “archaizing” late-fifteenth and early sixteenth-century manuscripts by adding decoration in an antiquated style, making them appear older than they really were (“Manuscripts from the Dominican Monastery of Saint-Louis de Poissy,” unpubl. PhD thesis, University of Melbourne, 1995, p. 139). In this case, a late fifteenth-century manuscript was decorated in a style from a century before. For more, see Scott Gwara’s sales catalogue Enchiridion 19: Medieval Fragments for University Teaching & Research, where this leaf is item 1A.
Next time, we’ll journey to Montreal, Québec, where there are several collections of distinction.
MontRoyal

 

 

 

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Manuscript Road Trip, Canadian Edition: Nova Scotia

The Flight into Egypt, Walters Art Museum, MS W.188, f.112r

The Flight into Egypt, Walters Art Museum, MS W.188, f.112r

Before I catch a virtual ferry to Nova Scotia, I want to thank everyone who contacted me in the last few weeks with updates to my handlist of Canadian collections. Thanks to these comments and emails, ten collections can be added to the list:

Simon Fraser University (Burnaby, British Columbia)

Memorial University (St. John’s, Newfoundland)

The Univ. of Western Ontario (London, Ontario)

Library and Archives Canada (Ottawa, Ontario)

University of Ottawa (Ottawa, Ontario)

Ontario College of Art and Design (Toronto, Ontario)

Concordia University  (Montréal, Québec)

Jesuit Archives (Montréal, Québec)

Musée de l’Amérique française (Montréal, Québec)

The University of Montréal (Montréal, Québec)

According to Laurent Brun, St. Paul University and Dominican University College in Ottawa may have pre-1600 material, but that is still to be confirmed.

All of these updates will go into the next (online) edition of the Directory of Collections in the United States and Canada with Pre-1600 Manuscript Holdings. For a limited time, by the way, the latest version of the Directory is available as an open-access PDF here. Melissa Conway (my Directory co-author) and I are very grateful for these and any updates.

And now, on to beautiful Nova Scotia…

Canada Map

I have never been to Nova Scotia, but it is on my list of places to visit, in part because that island province and neighboring New Brunswick have the distinction of being home to the most dramatic tides in the world, at the Bay of Fundy. The  difference between low and high tide can be a whopping fifty feet, and is, I am told, a sight to see. Here’s a time-lapse video (credit to Kevin@Creativeimagery.ca) of the tide coming in and out at Hopewell Rocks, one of the most dramatic sites. Fortunately, you won’t find medieval manuscripts in the Bay of Fundy, and since that’s why we’re here, after taking a ferry from New Brunswick across the Bay, we’ll head south-east to Halifax, to the University of King’s College.

Originally established in Windsor (on the Bay of Fundy), King’s College is the oldest English university in Canada, founded by the Church of England in 1789. It should come as no surprise, then, that many of the medieval manuscripts at King’s have a firmly Anglican provenance. The University relocated to Halifax after a fire destroyed the main building in 1920; fortunately, the library’s medieval manuscripts were unharmed. These books were first catalogued by librarian Harry Piers in 1893, in the Catalogue of the Library of King’s College, Windsor, Nova Scotia. Piers describes seven manuscripts (pp. 458 and 459), though not entirely the same seven recorded by the de Ricci Census (II:2202) in 1935. Today there are a dozen pre-1600 manuscripts (with thanks to former King’s College Special Collection librarian Janet Hathaway for this handlist):

King's MM7

Univ. of King’s College, MM 7 (detail) (photo courtesy of UKC, Spec. Coll. and Archives)

MM 1 (Piers p. 458; Census no. 1): Biblical concordance, s. XIII. Given by T. B. Akins in 1890.

MM 2 (Piers p. 459; Census no. 5): Anglo-Norman chancery scroll, s. XIII. Given by T. B. Akins in 1890.

MM 3 (Piers p. 33 and p. 458; Census no. 4): “Paris Bible,” s. XIII. Given by Rev. Reginald Heber Bullock in 1860.

MM 4 (Piers p. 458; Census no. 2): Passion narratives, s. XIV, with illustrations of the evangelists. Given by King’s President George Mccauley (1836 – 1875).

MM 5 (Piers p. 458; Census no. 3): Breviary (formerly identified as a Missal), said to be from the Jesuit College in Louvain, s. XIV. Given by T. B. Akins in 1871.

MM 6 (not in Piers; Census no. 7): Sermons on the Blessed Sacrament, said to have been written in 1268 for the Dominicans in Cologne. Formerly owned by Rev. H. T. Kingdon. Given by Rev. J. R. deW. Cowie, before 1935. (see below for more on this manuscript)

MM 7 (not in Piers or the Census): Hours of the Virgin, s. XVex (detail at left). Formerly owned by T. B. Akins. Given by the Nova Scotia Historical Society in 1956.

MM 8 (Piers p. 459; Census no. 6): German almanac for 1483. given by T. B. Akins in 1871.

MM 9 (not in Piers or the Census): Lives of Theseus and Romulus, s. XVI. Given by T. b. Akins in 1871.

MM 10 (not in Piers or the Census): Paradisus Monacharum, et alia (in Spanish), date unspecified. Given by Joy (Morrison) Smith, wife of President Harry Smith (1963 – 1969).

MM 11 (not in Piers or the Census): Coptic manuscript of the Psalms, written in Ge’ez, date unspecified. Given by Prof. Kathleen Jaeger.

MM 12 (not in Piers or the Census): Scroll of Esther, date unspecified

For my money, one of the most interesting of these is MM 6, a collection of sermons said to have been written in 1268 for the Dominicans of Cologne, the sometime home of the great Dominican Thomas Aquinas, whose work may have influenced this collection (there is much work to be done on these sermons and this manuscript; students take note!!). The manuscript opens with two spectacular full-page diagrams explicating the benefits of the Sacrament. Such diagrams were common exegetical tools used by teachers and preachers alike to make abstract theological concepts more concrete. Both are depicted botanically, as trees with root, trunk, branches, and leaves in descending hierarchy as concepts are broken out in more detail. The diagram on the right explains the seven benefits of the Sacrament:

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Univ. of King’s College, Manuscript MM 6, ff. 1v-2 (photo courtesy of University of King’s College, Archives & Special Collections, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada)

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UKC, Manuscript MM 6, f. 1r (detail)

The manuscript was likely written somewhat later than 1268, perhaps during the fourteenth century. It is not clear how the date of 1268 came to be associated with the codex; it is recorded in an early-modern inscription on the first flyleaf (detail at right), but only a detailed examination of the manuscript would allow for a more accurate estimate of its date of origin. I’m also not entirely sure what is implied by the final phrase of the inscription, “Item Novum Testamentum”; there may be sermons on the New Testament in the manuscript in addition to those on the Sacrament.

It is also unclear how or when the manuscript crossed the ocean. What IS clear is that at some point in the mid-nineteenth century it came into the possession of Hollingworth Tully Kingdon (1836-1907), an Anglican Bishop. Kingdon was born and educated in England and came to Canada in 1881 to take up the Bishop Coadjutor position in Fredericton, New Brunswick. An ardent bibliophile, Kingdon in all likelihood brought the manuscript (and others) with him to Canada. It was certainly in his possession by 1889, when he referred directly to the codex in a sermon delivered in New York:

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Univ. of King’s College, MM 6, f. 49 (photo courtesy of UKC, Spec. Coll.)

“There is in my possession a manuscript volume of sermons on the Sacrament of the Holy Eucharist. They were written by the Dominicans of Cologne in A. D. 1268 and bear internal evidence of the work of S. Thomas Aquinas who was lecturing at Cologne about that time…” (H. T. Kingdon, “The Reformation Period,” in The Church in the British Isles: Sketches of its Continuous History from the Earliest Times to the Restoration. Lectures Delivered in 1889 under the Auspices of the Church Club of New York (New York, 1894), p. 186)

As Kingdon was serving as Bishop Coadjutor, a young, equally book-loving King’s College alumnus named James Ratchford de Wolfe Cowie (1855 – 1935) was working towards his 1883 ordination as an Anglican Deacon; his first service was in Fredericton as well, where he served with Kingdon for several years before being sent to southern California as an Anglican missionary. When he returned to preach in New Brunswick (by 1901), he found that Kingdon had been promoted to full Bishop. They served together until Kingdon’s death in 1907.

Kingdon

Hollingworth Tully Kingdon (date unknown)

According to Kingdon’s Last Will and Testament (on file at the Provincial Archives of New Brunswick, and I thank PANB Reference Services Librarian Katherine MacDonald for tracking down the document for me), Kingdon left his entire estate to his wife Anna, who outlived him by several years. The next known owner of the Cologne manuscript, however, was not Anna but Rev. Cowie. It seems likely that Kingdon gave the codex to Cowie sometime before his death, a rare gift that surely suggests they were close friends, having worked together for many years. Cowie donated MM 6 to his alma mater sometime before his own death in 1935.

Manuscripts MM 1, 7, 8, and 9 came to King’s through Thomas Beamish Akins (1809 – 1891), a Canadian attorney and local historian; among his published works was the first history of King’s College, written in 1869. He donated MM 8 and 9 to the College in 1871, MM 1 in 1890. After his death, most of his library was bequeathed to the Legal Library of the Nova Scotia Historical Society, which gave manuscript MM 7 to King’s in 1956.

Next time, we’ll visit Newfoundland to catch the first sunrise over the Atlantic.

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Manuscript Road Trip: O, Canada!

The Flight into Egypt, Walters Art Museum, MS W.188, f.112r

The Flight into Egypt, Walters Art Museum, MS W.188, f.112r

At long last, it’s time to get back on the virtual road, embarking on a tour of medieval and Renaissance manuscripts in collections north of the 45th parallel.

And so begins the Manuscript Road Trip: Canadian Edition!

working-mapIn our road trip around the U.S., we’ve encountered pre-modern European manuscripts in 47 of the lower 48 states, plus Hawaii and Puerto Rico. There are some nice visualizations of the data compiled by myself and Melissa Conway here. We are still waiting to learn about even one manuscript in one public collection in North Dakota and/or Alaska!

Given the ubiquitous nature of early manuscripts in the southern half of North America, it should come as no surprise that there are plenty of early manuscripts in Canada, from Halifax all the way to Vancouver. And they’ve been there a long time.

bigmapofcanada

Northward ho!

According to McGill University curator Richard Virr, one of the first medieval manuscripts to have arrived in Canada was McGill MS 3, a Benedictional from Amiens. It was brought to Québec by Christopher Reiffenstein (ca. 1779 – 1840), a militia officer and businessman. After the end of what began as the War of 1812, Reiffenstein went into business as a retail merchant and, eventually, an auctioneer. He began by selling surplus war goods, but eventually transitioned to include art and books, mostly purchased in England.

Reiffenstein’s Benedictional was one of a handful of manuscripts included in an 1877 exhibit in Montreal, by which time it was part of the collection of George F. C. Smith (see Virr, 1992, p. 14). Smith loaned three ex-Reiffenstein volumes to the exhibit: the Benedictional was the earliest (Dunn-Lardeau/Virr, 2014, p. 159).

The exhibit was part of an international celebration commemorating the 400th anniversary of Caxton’s first printing. It opened with fifteen manuscripts from Canadian collections chosen as examples of book culture before printing. The catalogue, A Condensed Catalogue of Manuscripts, Books and Engravings on Exhibition at the Caxton Celebration (Montreal, 1877) is online here; the manuscripts are described on page 1 without any indication of their owners:


Caxton Catalogue p. 1Missals and MSS Prior to the Invention of Printing.

1. New Testament, In Latin, 8vo, double columns…circa 1250. This elaborate and beautiful specimen of calligraphy is done in colors, by a German scribe, in gothic character, on fine prepared vellum, and is undoubtedly of the period stated.

2. MS. on vellum, Benedictiones Dominicales…13th century. Highly illuminated in gold and colors.

3. Missal on vellum…(copied in 1746)…15th century

4. Elegantiarum, Laurentii Valle…circa 1430. A remarkably interesting and excessively rare work, entirely manuscript, Colored Initial letters. On vellum and paper.

5. Fragments of Illuminated Kalendar, on parchment,…circa. 15th century

6. A thin roll of Egyptian Papyrus

7. Leaves of a Tamil School Book of Palmetto leaf

8. Two Burmese MSS

9. An illuminated MS of the Koran in Arabic

10. A copic MS of the Gospel of St. John

11. Latin Breviary MS on vellum…circa 1350. An extremely rare and beautiful specimen.

12. Book of Hours, MS on vellum, in Latin and Dutch…1412

13. Page of a Breviary, on vellum…circa 1450

14. MS Book on Vellum, Illuminated…Liege 1501

15. Capitals from a Missal…16th century


The weekly Canadian Illustrated News reported extensively on the show (see Virr, 1992, note 17):

There were specimens of missals and manuscripts anterior to the invention of printing, such as a new Testament in Latin, of the date 1250, an elaborate and beautiful specimen of caligraphy done in colors, by a German scribe, on fine vellum, and undoubtedly of the age stated; of 1430 a remarkable interested and excessively rare manuscript, with colored initial letters, and on vellum and paper; a roll of Egyptian papyrus, a Tamil school book of palmetto, leaf, Burmese MSS, Captic and Arabic MSS, etc. (Canadian Illustrated News, 14 July 1877, p. 18)

Only two of the fifteen manuscripts have been positively identified: no. 2 (the Reiffenstein/Smith Benedictional, now McGill MS 3) and no. 3 (also at McGill). No. 4 (Lorenzo Valla’s Elegantiarum) was loaned by the University of Toronto but was destroyed by fire in 1890 (see comment from Scott Gwara below). The Benedictional was reproduced by the Canadian illustrated News on 28 July alongside manuscript no. 1, the thirteenth-century Bible described above:

Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec

McGill MS 3 (left) and an unidentified Bible (right) [Canadian Illustrated News, 28 July 1877, p. 60]

At some point after the close of the exhibit, Smith donated all three volumes to the Diocesan Seminary of Montreal. From there, the Benedictional made its way to the library of the McGill University School of Theology before finally coming to rest in McGill’s Department of Special Collections (see Dunn-Lardeau/Virr, p. 159).

When Seymour de Ricci published his Census of Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the United States and Canada (Bibliographical Society of America, 1935-40), he counted around eighty codices in six public Canadian collections (II:2201-2238): Edmonton, Alberta: St. Stephen’s College (one Greek codex); Halifax, Nova Scotia: King’s College (six codices and a legal scroll); Montreal, Québec: McGill University (around fifty codices and several dozen documents, leaves, and cuttings); Toronto, Ontario: Academy of Medicine (one fragmentary codex); Royal Ontario Museum of Archaeology (eighteen codices and around two dozen leaves and cuttings); and the University of Toronto (five codices).The 1962 Faye & Bond Supplement added the Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, which at the time held one codex and two dozen leaves.

Today, according to the Directory of Collections in the United States and Canada with Pre-1600 Manuscript Holdings (co-authored by myself and Melissa Conway), there are nearly 1,400 codices, leaves, and early documents in eighteen Canadian collections, scattered across Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Québec, and Saskatchewan:

Screenshot (10)

 

Manuscripts in Canada will be the subject of a one-day symposium on 18 March 2016 at the University of Victoria, a gathering I are very sorry to have to miss. I hope that anyone in attendance will let Melissa and myself know of collections of which we are not aware. In particular, we would very much like to know of any collections in the provinces and territories missing from the list above: New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Prince Edward Island, the Northwest Territories, Nunavut, and Yukon.

Nova ScotiaNext time, we’ll catch a ferry to Nova Scotia to start our tour.

 

Works cited:

A Condensed Catalogue of Manuscripts, Books and Engravings on Exhibition at the Caxton Celebration (Montreal, 1877)

Richard Virr, “Behold this treasury of glorious things: the Montreal Caxton Exhibition of 1877,” Papers of the Bibliographical Society of Canada, Vol. 30 (1992), 7-20.

Dunn-Lardeau, Brenda and RichardVirr, “La redécouverte d’un exemplaire des heures enluminées de 1516 imprimées par Gilles Hardouin.” (Gutenberg-Jahrbuch, 2014), 144-170.

 

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Manuscript Road Trip: Introducing the Beauvais Missal!

The Flight into Egypt, Walters Art Museum, MS W.188, f.112r

The Flight into Egypt, Walters Art Museum, MS W.188, f.112r

I spent the weekend at the Schoenberg Institute for Manuscript Studies at the University of Pennsylvania, attending the 8th Annual Schoenberg Symposium on Manuscripts in the Digital Age. The theme was “Picking up the Pieces,” devoted to fragments and fragmentology, and I was asked to present my digital reconstruction of the Beauvais Missal and discuss some of my initial findings. And here it is:

http://brokenbooks2.omeka.net

On the site, you will find records for each of the 94 known leaves of the Missal, links to brief summaries of my initial findings (in the Exhibit space), and a link out to the Broken Books Mirador manifest, the digital surrogate of the Beauvais Missal.

Ninety-four leaves located, 215 to go! I know they’re out there somewhere…

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