Category Archives: Houghton Library

Fragmentology in the COVID-era Classroom

The Flight into Egypt, Walters Art Museum, MS W.188, f.112r

It’s been a rough few years, friends. We have all been through so much during the pandemic, and for students and teachers the pivots and policies have been particularly difficult and frustrating. Trying to stay safe, learning to teach online, dealing with trauma and loss, getting used to social-distanced and masked pedagogy, in addition to the usual pressures of teaching and learning. It was a particular delight, then, to see my extraordinary Simmons University School of Library Science students here in Boston make their way through this semester’s course “The Medieval Manuscript from Charlemagne to Gutenberg” not only with resilience and steadfastness, but with enthusiasm, intellectual curiosity, and the joy of discovery.

Stony Brook University, “Fifty Original Leaves from Medieval Manuscripts,” no. 31

As always, the final project for my class this semester was a digital reconstruction of one of the Books of Hours dismembered by Otto Ege in the first half of the twentieth century. This year, we chose the lovely ca. 1430 Book of Hours from France whose leaves became no. 31 in the Ege portfolio, “Fifty Original Leaves from Medieval Manuscripts.” Each of my fourteen students was assigned one leaf from one of the known portfolios (such as the leaf at Stony Brook University, shown at right) to research and catalogue. They had to use online resources such as the Hypertext Book of Hours to identify the text on their leaf, and then catalogue the leaf using the Fragmentarium database. Some of the students were so enthusiastic about the project that they catalogued more than the one leaf originally assigned to them. I did some as well, so that we could work with as many leaves as possible.

One of my students took extraordinary initiative and spent hours searching the internet to try to find more leaves. She found several, including a calendar page at Dartmouth College and a miniature that was recently sold by the Manhattan Rare Book Company. Both of these are rare and important finds for an Ege manuscript. Generally, it is very difficult to definitively identify miniatures from the Ege manuscripts, since they were sold separately from the text leaves that are found in portfolios and often are framed so that the text side is not visible, making it quite difficult to determine if the miniature came from the target manuscript. In this case, however, the bookseller had reproduced the text side as well, so we could tell for sure that this miniature was from our manuscript. The miniature (below) was a depiction of King David at prayer, the opening of the Penitential Psalms section of the Book of Hours. The gold ring surrounding the vines in the lower margin is a motif that appears in other leaves, and may suggest that the book was commissioned to commemorate a marriage.

I wrote to the bookseller to ask for more information, and he informed me that the miniature had just been sold to a private collector in New York City. He contacted the owner on my behalf, and the new owner emailed me directly to let me know that he in fact owned THREE miniatures from this manuscript! In addition to David at Prayer, he had acquired miniatures of the Annunciation (Matins, Hours of the Virgin) and the Nativity (Prime, Hours of the Virgin).

In the meantime, following the trail left by Scott Gwara in his entry for this manuscript from his monograph, Otto Ege’s Manuscripts ((Cayce, SC : De Brailes Publishing, 2013), pp. 128-129), the same student tracked down a copy of Judith Oliver’s catalogue of a now-defunct collection formerly belonging to the Boston University School of Theology, where four miniatures, including the Annunciation and the Nativity, were illustrated.

Judith Oliver, Manuscripts Sacred and Secular (Boston: Endowment for Biblical Research, 1985), pp. 58-59 (no. 97, figs. 20-23).
Memphis Brooks Museum of Art, Acc. 56.27

Gwara recorded a miniature as well, this burial scene belonging to the Memphis Brooks Museum of Art that was purchased from Ege’s widow Louise in 1956. Now we had SIX miniatures to work with, two of which are untraced (the Annunciation to the Shepherds and the Adoration of the Magi, shown at right above). There are almost certainly several more miniatures that have not been located, completing the series for the Hours of the Virgin (the Visitation, the Presentation, the Flight into Egypt, and the Coronation of Virgin). There may also have been one or more miniatures illustrating the Gospel Readings that would have followed the calendar. With so much evidence, an art-historical analysis was possible. A group of students worked together to craft this stylistic description:

“Marginal rinceaux and painted line fillers, smallish acanthus leaves on miniature pages only. Margins also include gold trefoil and red, blue, and green flowers growing on the rinceaux. Rinceaux often seems to “sprout” out of the text, usually from a single gold initial or line-filler. Borders on recto and verso are mirrored for efficiency. Some leaves show a gold ring motif among the rinceaux. Miniatures with gold U-borders with flowers/ leaves in red and blue. Continental color palette: Blues, purples, jewel tone & continental design: botanical, leafy, organic. Miniature composition similar to Bedford Master Workshop (see Oliver, pp. 58-59), Dunois Master Workshop, and occasionally elements of Boucicaut Master Workshop (as suggested by Sotheby’s).”

[it is important to note that of the five other non-portfolio leaves identified by Gwara as coming from this manuscript, upon inspection only the Memphis leaf could be affiliated with Ege 31; the other four are from a different manuscript entirely]

In the end, we identified a total of thirty-seven leaves of this manuscript. After each student had catalogued their leaf/leaves in Fragmentarium, we then worked together in class to use Fragmentarium’s IIIF-sequencing functionality to digitally recreate the manuscript:

While some students were scouring the internet for additional leaves, others were conducting codicological research. One student selected two leaves at random to catalogue – from Massey College at the University of Toronto and the Wadsworth Athenaeum in Hartford, Connecticut – that turned out to be consecutive. Several other students identified formerly-consecutive leaves, and we even found eight leaves in a row. These consecutive runs, combined with evidence such as surviving catchwords on several leaves, allowed us to partially reconstruct several quires (using an innovative and intuitive resource called VisColl). In those three quires, we identified four pairs of formerly-conjoint bifolia, highlighted in green above. Yale University’s Beinecke Library preserves a still-conjoint consecutive bifolium from the manuscript in its portfolio. Other pairs were reconstructed using textual and codicological evidence. The catchword on the verso of the leaf at Harvard University’s Houghton Library, for example (below left), indicates that this bifolium was the outermost of its quire (L9/L16 in the diagram above). In other words, each of these pairs of leaves were once attached to one another at the gutter as a single sheet of parchment, folded in half and sewn into the quire. When Ege dismembered the manuscript, he disbound the quires and split the conjoints. These pairs of leaves haven’t seen each other in nearly a century. Below, the leaf at Harvard University’s Houghton Library is virtually reunited with its former conjoint, now at the University of Saskatchewan, nearly 2,300 miles away.

We have analyzed art historical evidence and codicological evidence. What about the contents? The surviving leaves preserve portions of several sections of the manuscript: the Calendar, Hours of the Virgin, Hours of the Cross, Penitential Psalms, and the Office of the Dead. While we did not recover the critical pieces of liturgy that are usually used to determine Use (the antiphon and chapter reading for Prime and None of the Hours of the Virgin, as well as the Matins Responsories of the Office of the Dead), independent research by several students helped identify the origins of the manuscript. One student determined that the particular hymn used on the page she had been assigned seemed to indicate that the manuscript was for the Use of Paris. Another found that an atypical Psalm used at Vespers for the Office of Dead was also suggestive of Use of Paris. The few Matins responsories recovered for the Office of the Dead were consistent with Paris Use and, after a careful in-class analysis of the saints named on the calendar page, we felt we could confidently identify this manuscript as made for the Use of Paris.

That’s as far as we’ve gone so far. We spent several hours conducting provenance research in the Schoenberg Database of Manuscripts, trying to identify any pre-Ege sales of this manuscript (with help from provenance-researcher-extraordinaire Laura Cleaver and the always-helpful reference librarians at The Grolier Club Library), but we haven’t found it yet. The dimensions of the manuscript (190 x 160 (107 x 68) mm) are fairly typical, as is the number of lines (15), making it difficult to definitively identify this manuscript in an early sales record.

The semester is over, but the work continues. The linked-open data model and interoperable image sequencing reflect best digital practices. This means that if more leaves are identified, they can easily be added to the reconstruction, and if I ever do manage to find a sales record that seems to represent this manuscript when it was whole, I can update the Fragmentarium record accordingly.

This annual project accomplishes many of my goals for my students, all of whom are pursuing a Masters of Library Science: craft clean, consistent, linked data; work with digital images in a IIIF environment; analyze paleographical, art historical, and codicological evidence to determine the date and place of origin of a medieval manuscript; understand how to research and work with Books of Hours, which are among the most common genres of medieval manuscripts in North American collections; and work collaboratively. Each student’s record has its own persistent and citable URL, as does the reconstruction. The work of previous years can be found here, and for more information about other scholars who are doing reconstructions and studies of other Ege manuscripts, see this blogpost.

I hope to take on another reconstruction with Simmons students next fall, hopefully in a post-pandemic world. In the meantime, I wish you a very Merry Christmas and a Happy, and Healthy, New Year.

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Filed under Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Books of Hours, Codicology, Fragmentology, Houghton Library, Medieval Manuscripts, Otto F. Ege, Paleography, Uncategorized

Manuscript Road Trip: The Houghton Library

The Flight into Egypt, Walters Art Museum, MS W.188, f.112r

The Flight into Egypt, Walters Art Museum, MS W.188, f.112r

As of now, I have “visited” every state in the continental U.S., and in only one – North Dakota – have I not found a single medieval leaf or codex. Canada’s next, but before I virtually head up to Nova Scotia, I’m going to write one more post from my hometown of Boston, about the collection that lies within a stone’s throw of my Medieval Academy office: the Houghton Library at Harvard University.

working map


The Houghton Library, Harvard University (Cambridge, Massachusetts)

Harvard has been acquiring manuscripts since the early nineteenth century. The first manuscripts to arrive were seven codices (six Greek and one Latin) given by Edward Everett in 1819;  in 1874, Charles Sumner gave twenty-six medieval manuscripts to the University. The first purchases were seven manuscripts bought at the 1896 Phillipps sale at Sotheby’s, and the collection has grown from there.  For more on the early development of the collection, see pp. xii-xiv of Laura Light’s 1995 Catalogue of medieval and renaissance manuscripts in the Houghton Library, Harvard University.

One of the earliest medieval manuscripts in North America: MS Typ 6 (Jerome's letter to Heliodorus, s. VIII 2/2), written in Luxeuil script.

MS Typ 6 (fragment of Jerome’s letter to Heliodorus, ca. 750-800).

According to the Houghton website, Harvard was the first American institution to construct a separate building for its rare material, opening the Houghton Library in 1942. With the foundational collection supplemented by purchases and bequests, including the acquisition of collections compiled by William K. Richardson and Philip Hofer, the Houghton Library currently houses more than 1,000 codices and leaves, including some of the earliest medieval material in North America.

Houghton MS Typ 1 (

Houghton MS Typ 1 (“The Calderini Pontifical”), f. 1 (Rome, ca. 1380)

Today, the Houghton collection runs the gamut, from early fragments included in E. A. Lowe’s classic Codices Latini antiquiores to Carolingian leaves studied by Bernhard Bischoff, through every genre and era to major masterpieces of Renaissance manuscript and incunable illumination. Manuscripts from the collections of some of the most important scriptoria, patrons, and collectors have found their way into Houghton, from Tours and Montecassino to Jean, Duc de Berry and Sir Thomas Phillipps.

Nearly every major project on which I have worked in my career has had a Houghton connection: in the reading room, I have examined two leaves of the Gottschalk Antiphonal (the subject of my doctoral dissertation and first book), two copies of the Chronique Anonyme Universelle (here and here), and, most recently, two leaves of the Beauvais Missal. I’ve consulted the notes compiled by William H. Bond as he prepared his Supplement to the de Ricci Census, and I’ve spent more hours than I care to admit searching through Houghton’s vast auction and sales catalogue collection for provenance information on particular manuscripts in U.S. collections. The Houghton collection is so vast and varied that, whatever topic you are working on, you will always find something of interest, and the incredibly knowledgeable curators and reading room staff are always ready to help you find what you seek. Be sure to schedule your research to include working on a Friday, when readers join curators and reading room staff mid-morning for coffee and cookies.

Houghton MS Typ 120 (leaf from the

Houghton MS Typ 120 (leaf from the “Noyon Missal”) (Noyon, s. XIII 1/2)

As helpful as the staff is, you will not need their assistance to consult the vast amount of information about the collection and its holdings that is now available online. There are three online access points for the manuscripts: HOLLIS (MARC records in Harvard’s OPAC), the Digital Medieval Manuscripts collection, and the external database Digital Scriptorium (all images open access). Each point of access requires a different search strategy and offers a slightly different type of data (detailed metadata, digital surrogates, and selected images, respectively), so you should choose your access depending on your particular needs. Search strategies for HOLLIS and the Digital Medieval Manuscripts databases can be found here. If you know the shelfmark of the manuscript in which you are interested, the best place to start is the Digital Medieval Manuscripts collection. From the Manuscript Collections page, click on the shelfmark prefix (MSS Lat, MSS Ger, or MSS Typ, for example) and then scroll down to the manuscript you are looking for. There you will find links to the digital surrogate (if available) and a detailed bibliography, both of which also link to the HOLLIS record. William P. Stoneman, Curator of Early Books and Manuscripts, is particularly interested in keeping the bibliographies up-to-date and asks that you please contact him with additional references to particular manuscripts. Digitization is ongoing, so if the manuscript you’re looking for hasn’t been digitized yet, it is probably in the queue and will be available soon.

Houghton MS Richardson 42 (

Houghton, MS Richardson 42 (“The De Buz Hours”), f. 118, the Office of the Dead (France, ca. 1420-25)

I’ll use a recently-digitzed masterpiece, the De Buz Hours (a.k.a. MS Richardson 42), as an example. The HOLLIS record provides authority-controlled metadata pertaining to the contents, codicological structure, binding, script, illumination, and provenance, among other MARC/AMREMM fields. On the Digital Medieval Manuscripts page, you will find links to a detailed bibliography as well as a full, open-access digital surrogate. Meanwhile, over at Digital Scriptorium, you will find selected open-access images as well as codicological and descriptive metadata in an image databank that includes dozens of other collections.

Other online resources include a project devoted to Books of Hours titled Picturing Prayer, the Houghton blog, and a tumblr.

Several other Harvard collections also house early manuscripts: the Andover-Harvard Theological Library, Harvard Medical School, Harvard Law School, and Harvard Business School. Some of this material can be found in HOLLIS or via the collections’ websites.

Screen Shot 2015-05-21 at 3.16.53 PMMuch of the cataloguing and digitization currently underway at Houghton is in preparation for the 2016 exhibit Pages from the Past that will showcase more than 250 pre-1600 manuscripts and incunables from Boston-area collections. The Houghton Library will serve as one of three exhibition venues (parts of the exhibit will also be installed at the McMullen Museum at Boston College and the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum) but will also be the major lender, contributing more than half of the exhibited items. The project was recently awarded a major grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities that, combined with other sources of support, will allow the co-curators (Jeffrey Hamburger, William P. Stoneman, Anne-Marie Eze, Nancy Netzer, and myself) to fully realize our vision of a pedagogically sound exhibit accompanied by a detailed catalogue, scholarly colloquium, significant public programming, and full digitization and online availability of every item in the show. The exhibit will open in September 2016. I hope you will have the chance to come to Boston and see these treasures for yourself.

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Filed under Harvard University, Houghton Library, Medieval Manuscripts, Pages from the Past